Punishing Shoes. The victim would see how long they could stand on their tiptoes before they would fall back and get spikes jammed into their heels.
Taken in Spain in 1940
This is a procession of people repenting their sins in a ritual for Semana Santa, celebrated the week before Easter.
Cyclopia is a rare birth defect in which the body is unable to properly separate the two eye sockets so they remain merged as one. The majority of babies suffering this disease are stillborn but if they survive it is not usually for more than a few hours.
Shibari Portrait by Seiu Ito (Itō Seiu), c. 1950s